Saturday, May 14, 2011

Covalent Bond

"A covalent bond is formed when the atoms of same or different elements combine by mutual sharing of electrons". The compound, thus formed, is known as a Covalent Compound. The shared pair of electrons contributes towards the stability of both the atoms involved in the bond formation. The number of electrons shared by an atom to form the covalent bond is known as its covalency. The covalent bonds formed by sharing one, two or three electron pairs are known as single, double, or triple covalent bonds respectively and are commonly represented by single, double or triple lines.
Some examples of covalent compounds
(i).    Hydrogen, H2
    Hydrogen molecule is made of two hydrogen atoms, each having one valence electron. Each contributes an electron to the shared pair and both atoms acquire stable Helium configuration. Thus stable Hydrogen molecule is formed.
(ii).    Chlorine, Cl2
Each Chlorine atom (2, 8, 7) has seven valence electrons. The two Chlorine atoms achieve a stable electron configuration by mutual sharing of electrons.
(iii).    Nitrogen, N2
The two atoms of nitrogen (2, 5), each having five electrons in the valence shell, achieve the octet by sharing three electron pairs between them. Hence nitrogen molecule has triple bond.

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